Three centuries of English crops yields


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Sources of yield observations contained in the Medieval Crop Yields Database:

as specified in the database:

Full specification of source:


N. W. Alcock, , ‘An east Devon manor in the later Middle Ages. Part I: 1374-1420. The manor farm’, Reports and Transactions of the Devonshire Association 102 (1970), 141-87 [p. 153].


Mark Bailey, A marginal economy? East-Anglian Breckland in the later Middle Ages, Cambridge, 1989, 101-3.

     (Canterbury Cathedral Priory)

Yields calculated by Bruce M. S. Campbell (with the assistance of Marilyn Livingstone) from Canterbury Cathedral Priory beadles’ rolls at the Canterbury Cathedral Archives.  For a detailed of the pre-1350 rolls for Kent see: J. A. Galloway, M. Murphy, and O. Myhill, Kentish demesne accounts up to 1350: a catalogue, London, 1993. Listings for the rolls of individual Canterbury Cathedral Archives can be accessed online via: and then following the link to ‘Canterbury Cathedral Archives’.

     (Froyle, Hampshire)

Yields calculated by Bruce M. S. Campbell from British Library, Add Ch 13,338-9 & 17,457-92; Hants. R.O. 123M88W/1 (1249-50).

     (Norfolk & Suffolk)

Yields calculated by Bruce M. S. Campbell. Manuscript references for these Norfolk and Suffolk manors are given in Bruce M. S. Campbell, English seigniorial agriculture 1250-1450, Cambridge, 2000, Appendix 2, 453-65.

     (Ospringe, Kent)

Yields calculated by Bruce M. S. Campbell from The National Archives, PRO SC6/893-4.


M. Clare Coleman, Downham-in-the-Isle: a study of an ecclesiastical manor in the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries. Woodbridge, 1984, 156.


C. C. Dyer, Lords and peasants in a changing society: the estates of the bishopric of Worcester, 650-1540, Cambridge, 1980, 129.

    (Westminster Abbey)

Yield calculations preserved in The Papers of Farmer MG145 at the University of Saskatchewan Archives (Research Notes and Data IIIA 1-25) and made by the late D. L. Farmer from microfilm copies of the original manorial accounts in the Westminster Abbey Archives.

    (Winchester estate, from 1350)

Yield calculations preserved in The Papers of Farmer MG145 at the University of Saskatchewan Archives (Research Notes and Data IIIB 1, 16-17, 55-6) and made by the late D. L. Farmer from microfiche copies of the original Winchester Pipe Rolls preserved in the Hampshire Record Office. [see Winchester Pipe Rolls and yield data].  Note: all Farmer’s Winchester yield calculations have been re-dated one year earlier, to conform with the harvest years used by Titow and collate with the surviving Bishops Waltham compotus rolls preserved at the Hampshire Record Office.


Yield calculations based on data contained in M. W. Farr, ed., Accounts and surveys of the Wiltshire lands of Adam de Stratton, Wiltshire Archaeological and Natural History Society Records Branch, 14, Devizes, 1959, 71-185.


P. D. A. Harvey, ed., Manorial records of Cuxham, Oxfordshire circa 1200-1359, Oxfordshire Record Society 50, London, 1976, 739-49.


Yield calculations based on data contained in I. Kershaw & D. M. Smith, eds., The Bolton Priory Compotus 1286-1325, Yorkshire Archaeological Society, Record Series CLIV, Woodbridge, 2000.


Yield data transcribed by Marilyn Livingstone from Winchester Cathedral Archives, WCP/L37/Silkstead/1/1-2, 11/53-76, 12/1-30, 2/2-12; L38/Silkstead/2/14-15; W52/Silkstead/94.


Mavis Mate, ‘Profit and productivity on the estates of Isabella de Forz (1260-92)’, Economic History Review, 2nd series, 33 (1980), 326-34 [p. 332].


F. M. Page, The estates of Crowland Abbey. A study in manorial organization, Cambridge, 1934, 329-30.


L. F. Salzman, ed., Ministers' accounts of the manor of Petworth 1347-1353, Sussex Record Society, LV (1955).


Yield calculations supplied by Dr David Stone from research undertaken in conjunction with his book, Decision-making in medieval agriculture, Oxford, 2005.

     (Winchester estate to 1349)

J. Z. Titow, Winchester yields: a study in medieval agricultural productivity, Cambridge, 1972. [see Winchester Pipe Rolls and yield data].


K. Ugawa, Lay estates in medieval England, Tokyo, 1966, 134-41.


Yield data transcribed by Christopher Whittick and Anne Drewery from East Sussex Record Office, SAS G44/1-139, G45/9.